Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Geographic and Magnetic North Poles

The Geographic and Magnetic North Poles Earth is home to two North Poles, both located in the Arctic region: the geographic North Pole and the magnetic North Pole. Geographic North Pole The northernmost point on the Earths surface is the geographic North Pole, also known as True North. It is located at 90 ° North latitude but it has no specific line of longitude since all lines of longitude converge at the pole. The Earths axis runs through the North and South poles and it is the line around which the Earth rotates. The geographic North Pole is located approximately 450 miles (725 km) north of Greenland, in the middle of the Arctic Ocean: the sea there has a depth of 13,410 feet (4087 meters). Most of the time, sea ice covers the North Pole, but recently, water has been sighted around the exact location of the pole. All Points Are South If you are standing at the North Pole, all points are south of you (east and west have no meaning at the North Pole). While the Earths rotation takes place once every 24 hours, the speed of rotation is different based on where one is on the planet. At the Equator, one would travel 1,038 miles per hour; someone at the North Pole, on the other, hand, travels very slowly, barely moving at all. The lines of longitude that establish our time zones are so close at the North Pole that time zones are meaningless; thus, the Arctic region uses UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) when local time is necessary at the North Pole. Due to the tilt of the Earths axis, the North Pole experiences six months of daylight from March 21 through September 21 and six months of darkness from September 21 through March 21. Magnetic North Pole Located about 250 miles south of the geographic North Pole lies the magnetic North Pole at approximately 86.3 ° North and 160 ° West (2015), northwest of Canadas Sverdrup Island. However, this location is not fixed and is moving continually, even on a daily basis. The Earths magnetic North Pole is the focus of the planets magnetic field and is the point that traditional magnetic compasses point toward. Compasses are also subject to  magnetic declination, which is a result of the Earths varied magnetic field. Each year, the  magnetic North Pole  and the magnetic field shift, requiring those using  magnetic compasses  for navigation to be keenly aware of the difference between Magnetic North and True North. The magnetic pole was first determined in 1831, hundreds of miles from its present location.  The Canadian  National Geomagnetic Program  monitors the movement of the magnetic North Pole. The magnetic North Pole moves on a daily basis, too. Every day, theres an elliptical movement of the magnetic pole about 50 miles (80 kilometers) from its average center point. Who Reached the North Pole First? Robert Peary, his partner Matthew Henson, and four Inuit are generally credited with being the first to reach the geographic North Pole on April 9, 1909 (although many suspects  they missed the exact North Pole by a few miles). In 1958, the United States nuclear submarine Nautilus was the first vessel to cross the Geographic North Pole.  Today, dozens of planes fly over the North Pole using great circle routes between continents.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Poetry explication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Poetry explication - Essay Example The speaker is lying alone on her bed, at midnight. She couldn’t sleep and she listens to the sound of the rain tapping on the window glass. She remembers her past loves and realizes that they aren’t really very significant as she doesn’t even remember the names of her past lovers. The feelings that she remembers are very generic and simple (as opposed to special). She compares herself to a â€Å"lonely tree† (9) during the winter time and contrasts summer in the next two lines. The message in the last two lines are quite sad (and lonely of course, as she is alone) because it echoes the fact that â€Å"summer sang† (13) and â€Å"sings no more† (14). There is sureness in the fact that something will not happen again; that something has ended. The poem pictures a lonely person trying to introspect into her love life. Trying to remember loves and loves lost; trying to evaluate if they were all worth it. Apparently there were a lot of lovers because she has forgotten the people, â€Å"the arms that lain under my head† (2) and the â€Å"lips my lips have kissed† (1), that she has experienced. That these are the â€Å"unremembered lads that not again will turn† (7) and that they will never happen again because that season of her life has ended, when she compared herself to a lonely tree in winter. The loneliness and sadness is very evident in the poem as it portrays a woman alone in bed in a dark, rainy and cold night, realizing that the past loves of her were shallow; probably thinking that all of those experiences are worthless as none of them were special. The last line of the poem, though, can be a bit vague in a sense that she compared herself to a tree in winter. Winter. Winter is a part of a season, and in this poem, the seasons is a metaphor for life. It is told that in life there is always a season for everything; that there is a time for everything. Now it’s also known that the seasons come and go. Now she is at the winter part of

Monday, February 10, 2020

H.W Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

H.W - Assignment Example If the appropriate discount rate is 7% annually, what is present value of the girl’s fortune? Suppose you are going to buy a car. The cost of car is $20,000. You have $8,000 for down payment. You can borrow the balance of $12,000 from dealership’s finance company at 2% APR, with monthly payment for 36 months or you can borrow from a bank with 8% APR monthly payment for 3 years, and receive a $2,000 rebate on the purchase price. Assume that if you take the rebate, you will apply it toward the purchase. Which alternative is better deal? You are preparing a vacation to Europe in the future. You plan to save $400 a month beginning today, and estimate you earn 0.5% per month on your savings. Your goal is to save $6,000. How long it take to save this amount? Bank of Land has student loan program starting today but requires no payments for 4 years. However, during this interest deferred period the loan accumulated interest at 6% rate, compounded quarterly. The bank amortizes the loan over ten year period, requiring quarterly payments and continuing charge 6% annual interest rate, compounded quarterly. What will be the quarterly payment will be on today’s loan of $30,000? Green Co. just paid dividend of $1 per share. The company predicts that the dividend will increase 5% for next 5 years and 3% thereafter forever. If your required rate of return is 8%, what price you should pay for the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Letter of Paul to Romans Essay Example for Free

The Letter of Paul to Romans Essay Romans is the longest and most theologically significant of the letters of Paul. It can be described as a tractate letter, one that is composed of a theological argument or series of arguments. A letter essay as it may be, it was received by the people of the church at Rome who were mostly Gentiles. Paul, as the author of the letter to Romans, must have written the letter in Corinth. This is most likely on the near end of his third missionary journey. While there is no certainty of the date in which the letter was written, A. D. 57 is the best alternative. Preparing his way for his planned mission to Spain, Paul might have written his letter for the particular reason of asking for support from them. Yet he also presented his matured views on the issue between the Jews and Gentiles and the law and gospel. In addition, he set forth a teaching on a basic system of salvation that Rome had not received from an apostle ever since. In his letter, Paul explained why it is necessary for God to manifest His righteousness and that humankind can experience this righteousness only by faith. All have sinned and cannot be brought into a relationship with God by mere good works. God alone can change this by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Through Him, we can be justified before God and this justification can be gained only by faith. Justification means being blameless to God and this can be achieved by having faith in Jesus Christ. Through Christ, we can be freed from the bondage of sin and hence, sin can no longer dictate our actions, decisions, and our very lives. This is the power of God for salvation shown through the gospel to us. Paul, as well, emphasized that even though God had made a covenant to the Jews, being born as a Jew does not mean that they are automatically saved. It is their shortcomings to accept God’s righteousness that is to be blamed. Also, Gentile Christians (including us since we are not Jews) are not to boast and be arrogant on this matter for it is from Israel that salvation has come. Thus, we are ought to respect each other and humble ourselves down. The Christian is to serve God, as stimulated by His grace, by putting on the armor of light. This means that we must leave behind the deeds of the darkness and that we shall not grant the desires of our sinful nature. We are also ought to love others as ourselves no matter how unlovable they are for Jesus Christ died for them as well. Though free from the law, we still have to submit to the government because God has delegated His authority to them too. In this modern era, many circumstances might hinder us from doing good works. Yes! It is through faith that we are saved but faith without works is dead. Therefore, our lives must reflect on whom we put our faith in. Whatever this contemporary world throw at us, we must stand firm in our faith and even in our actions. Furthermore, do not let good works do the saving rather, mix it with faith and allow God to do the work of salvation. As the saying goes, walk by faith and not by sight.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Foreign Language Essay :: Essays

Antonio Machado es un poeta, que nacià ³ en Sevilla, el 26 de julio de 1875. Fue influido por el moderismo y el simbolismo pero su obra se expresa con lirica de la Generacià ³n del 98. Su ninez la paso en Sevilla y en 1883 se movià ³ con su familia a Madrid. Tenia un hermano que se llamaba Manuel Machado con el que juntos fueron a la Institucià ³n Libre de Enseà ±anza, que era privada y muy liberal. Su actitud humanitaria, liberal, y las actividades que en ella se hacà ­an, como viajes a los pueblos cercanos a Madrid y la Sierra de Guadarrama despertaron en à ©l un amor al campo y a la naturaleza que despuà ©s pudimos ver en sus poemas. En 1889 dejà ³ la institucià ³n para empezar el bachillerato (bachlors degree). El resultado no fue nada bueno aprobà ³ la Geografà ­a, pero lo suspendieron Latà ­n y Castellano y Historia de Espaà ±a. Su padre murio en 1893, y ese mismo aà ±o el publico sus primeros trabajos en La Caricatura, revista que se publicà ³ en Madrid en los aà ±os 1892 y 1893. Probablemente por su necesidad de dinero, Antonio y Manuel se van a Parà ­s. Manuel consigue un puesto de traductor en la Editorial Gamier para los libros en castellano destinados a Hispanoamà ©rica. En marzo de 1899 empieza a trabajar y tres meses despuà ©s Antonio tambien trabaja para el mismo editor. El trabajo que hacen es aburrido, cansado, y mal pagado, pero les consuela el que practican y mejoran sus conocimientos de francà ©s. Ademà ¡s, como les queda tiempo libre, vuelven a escribir versos. Pero pronto siente Antonio la trizteza de Madrid, de sus amigos, de su familia, y en el mes de octubre vuelven. En este segundo viaje a Paris, Antonio, tuvo la oportunidad de encontrarse con Rubà ©n Darà ­. Antonio le dijo sobre los poemas que escribà ­a para su primer libro, â€Å"Soledades†, y esos poemas, tan verdaderos y tristez, impresionaron a Rubà ©n, que los comentaba con su adjetivo favorito, "admirable, admirable!". Desde entonces, mostro siempre Darà ­o admira cià ³n por Antonio Machado, publicamente decia en varias ocasiones. En las à ºltimas semanas de enero de 1903, aparece el primer libro de Antonio, â€Å"Soledades† editado por la revista Ibà ©rica. En estos poemas medita sobre el tiempo pasado, recordando cuando era nino. Tambià ©n habla sobre la muerte, y palabras tan tristez como "hastà ­o", "monotonà ­a", "bostezo", "amargura", "llorar", se repiten mucho. El 27 de enero de 1939 la familia Machado llega a un pequeà ±o pueblo francà ©s, Collioure, y se instala en un hotel.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Becoming an Informed Voter

Georgia’s 5th Congressional District was created in the year 1827 after it was redistricted from the single multi-member district, the At-large district. During the first congressional elections held in same year, the district voted for Charles Haynes, a Jacksonian. In 1829 however, it was redistricted to the multi-member district.Ever since 1845, the 5th congressional district has been an independent district in Georgia, electing representatives to the House after every two years. Notably, the congressional seat has mostly been won by Democratic candidates.The only exceptions were in the 1851, 1868, 1873, and 1967, 1969, and 1971 elections. During five of these elections, the Republican nominees emerged victorious. It was only in 1851 when Thomas Hackett, a third-candidate running on a Unionist flag won the elections. From 1987 to the moment, John Lewis, a Democrat has won all the elections by a significantly wide margin. To a large extent, Georgia’s Fifth Congressiona l district has voted along party lines during presidential election.During the 2004 elections, the two presidential nominees, Democrat John Kerry and Republican George Bush received 78 percent and 28 percent respectively (Congressional Quarterly, 2005). In the 2008 elections, the district largely voted for the Democratic nominee, Barack Obama (79. 12 percent of the popular vote as compared to McCain who managed to scoop a mere 20. 1 percent of the popular vote) (Cost, 2008). Born in Troy, Alabama in 1940, John Lewis was to become one of the most renowned politicians in Georgia. It was during the Civil Rights Movements of the sixties that he increasingly came into the public arena.He is infamous for having chaired the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), a student civil movement that purported to challenge the widespread racially-based discrimination. Similarly, his role in the struggle against racial segregation is said to have been enormous – participating and l eading peaceful demonstrations such as the Selma-to-Montgomery march of 1965, and coordinating the Mississippi Freedom Project (Hill, 2002). Despite the fact that he suffered immensely under the brutal hand of authority agencies, Lewis endured, and was not only determined to lead by words, but through actions as well.It was in 1977 that Lewis first ran for elective office. This was after the congressional seat fell vacant, a situation occasioned by Andrew Young, the incumbent congressman’s appointment to the UN. Nevertheless, he was beaten by Wyche Fowler. In 1981, he was elected to the Atlanta City Council, a position he served till 1986 when he opted to vie for Congress. He managed to defeat Julian Bond (47% to 35%) in the Democratic primaries, a success largely attributed to his championing for city ethics and zoning. Thus, he became the second black American (after Young) to represent Georgia in Congress since the era of Reconstruction (Hill, 2002).Since 1987 to the momen t, Lewis has been reelected without little or no opposition at all, scooping more than 70% of the vote on many occasions. During his political career, he has interacted with many politicians irregardless of their racial background. He has also served in various Congressional committees including the Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support, and Subcommittee on Oversight; as well as non-legislative committees such as the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, 21st Century Health Care Caucus, and the Caucus on Human Trafficking (Project Vote Smart).One dichotomy that inevitably emerges whenever the difference between Democrats and Republicans is considered is that of liberalism versus conservatism. In essence, the Democrats are considered as liberals, while the Republicans are often described as conservatives. Although this stereotyping may not necessarily be correct, majority of Republicans tend to be strong advocates of the established traditions, while Democrats are more libe ral in their approach, thus stronger advocates of change.Numerous interest groups rate U. S. representatives and Senators based on their voting affiliations. These include National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League (NARAL), American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Children’s Defense Fund (CDF), American for Democratic Action (ADA) and American Conservative Union (ACU) among others. In the year 2007, respective groups rated Representative John Lewis as follows: NARAL, 100%; ACLU, 100%; ADA, 85%; and CDF, 100%. Overall, seven interest groups gave him an average of 94%.In essence, this high score is a strong indication that Lewis is a liberal politician. The fact that he has been given a rating of 100% by groups such as NARAL Pro-Choice America implies that he is very supportive of progressive as opposed to conservative policies. Part 2: US State of Georgia The U. S. State of Georgia is among the thirteen original colonies that entered the Union and formed the Confede rate in 1788. Except in 1864 when it had temporarily seceded from the Confederate, the state has participated in all presidential elections.A closer observation of historical trends reveals that Georgia political history in regard to voting as largely inclined to supporting the two major political parties in the country, Republican and Democrat. Between 1868 and 1960 for instance, the state was persistently supportive of the Democrat party, voting Democratic presidential nominees in every election (Martis, 1989). However, the controversy surrounding the Civil Rights Act championed by the Democrats in the early sixties precipitated a change in voting coalitions beginning 1964.For the first time in history, the largely conservative Georgian Democrats voted in a Republican presidential nominee particularly due to their discontentment with the Act. In the 1968 elections, the state voted for George Wallace, an Independent presidential candidate. However, this was the last elections that saw a third-party nominee receive electoral votes in Georgia. Since then, the state has remained largely Republican. The only times when the state supported and voted for a Democrat was in 1976 (Jimmy Carter) and 1992 (Bill Clinton) (Congressional Quarterly, 2005).From a critical point of view, support for Democrats during the two presidential elections was largely rooted in the fact that both presidential nominees were from the southern states. During the 2008 presidential elections, McCain (Republican) received the majority of Georgia’s popular vote (2,048,759 or 52. 23 percent as compared to Obama who received 1,844,123 or 47. 02 percent of the popular vote). As Compared to the 2004 presidential elections, the Republican-Democrat winning margin during the 2008 elections was significantly low (5. 21% compared to 17 percent in 2004).To a large extent, the narrowed margin was attributable to the high voter turnout of African American voters. Nevertheless, McCain scooped all t he fifteen electoral votes. Out of the all the other presidential candidates, only Bob Barr running on a Libertarian ticket managed to get a significant portion of the popular vote (28,731 votes) (Cost, 2008). To a large extent, Georgia can be described a Republican stronghold as evident from presidential and congressional elections. Notably, the state has not voted for a Democratic presidential candidate since Bill Clinton won the state in the 1992 elections.Despite the fact that African American voters turned in large numbers during the 2008 presidential elections thus reducing the margin between the Republican and Democrat vote, the state managed to maintain the Republican legacy through McCain’s win. With its substantial fifteen electoral votes, Georgia emerged as the 2nd largest state (after Texas) to be won by the Republican presidential nominee. On the 15th of December 2008, all the fifteen electors voted for McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin. McCain was able to carry eight out of Georgia’s thirteen congressional districts (Cost, 2008).Based on the 2008 as well as previous presidential elections, Georgia can be said to be currently leaning Republican. Senator Saxby Chambliss was born on the 10th of November, 1943 in Warrenton, North Carolina. After completing his high school education, he joined Louisiana Tech University where he pursued a degree in Business Administration, and later graduated with a Jurist doctorate from the University of Tennessee (Project Vote Smart). Chambliss entered into the political limelight in 1994 after he was elected to the House of Representatives on a Republican ticket.He was reelected in 1996, 1998, and 2000. During his terms as a Representative for Macon-based eighth congressional district, he served on the U. S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, besides chairing the House Intelligence on Terrorism and Homeland Security (Project Vote Smart). In 2002, he vied for the Senate seat where he faced the incumbent, Max Cleland. Notably his focus was on two major issues: homeland security and national defense. Flagging a Republican ticket, he managed to win the election with a significant margin of 7%.In the 2008 elections however, neither him nor Democrat Jim Martin, his close opponent, managed to receive the required 50%, a situation which precipitated a runoff. Nevertheless, Chambliss defeated Martin 57. 5 percent to 42. 5 percent (Congressional Quarterly). As a Senator, Chambliss has been appointed to various committees including the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, Select Committee on Intelligence, and Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe among others.He has also been a member in Caucus committees such as the Congressional Fire Services Caucus, Senate caucus on Military Deports, Arsenals and Ammunition Plants, and Rural Health Caucus (Project Vote Smart). Although Senator Chambliss has been actively involved in bi-par tisan legislation, for instance the Emergency Stabilization Act (2008), a closer scrutiny of his voting record depicts him as largely conservative. This is largely reflected in interest group ratings. In 2003 for instance, for instance, LCV gave him a rating of 0% on environmental issues, while NAACP gave him rating of 27% on civil liberties and rights issues in 2007.In 2007, he was rated as follows by other interest groups: NARAL, 0%; ACLU, 10%; ADA, 10%; and CDF, 40% (Project Vote Smart). Overall, he received an average rating of 15%. The fact that his average score is relatively low implies that Chambliss is a conservative Republican. According to the National Right to Life Committee and NARAL for instance, the Senator has maintained a pro-life voting record in as far as abortion issues are concerned (Project Vote Smart). References Congressional Quarterly. (2005). Guide to U. S. elections. New York: CQ Press, 2001. Cost, J. (2008). Georgia: McCain vs. Obama – polling aver ages. RealClearPolitics.Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www. realclearpolitics. com/epolls/2008/president/ga/georgia_mccain_vs_obama-596. html. Hill, C. M. (2002). John Lewis: from freedom rider to Congressman. New York: Enslow Publishers, Inc. Martis, K. C. (1989). The historical atlas of political parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Project Vote Smart. Representative John R. Lewis (GA). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www. votesmart. org/bio. php? can_id=26820 Project Vote Smart. Senator C. Saxby Chambliss (GA). Retrieved July 23, 2009 from http://www. votesmart. org/issue_rating_category. php? can_id=22029

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Industrial Revolution Environmental - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2463 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/05/18 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Industrial Revolution Essay Did you like this example? Isaiah Kessler Womack A05 Assignment #3 Rough Draft 19 November 2018 The Industrial Revolution: Environmental Decay in 18th Century Britain The Industrial Revolution followed colonialism and is marked as the time in which we as human beings progressed into the modern age. During the time of the Industrial Revolution there was a great expanse in technological innovations and many changes to human society. Major countries, such as Britain and the United states, that underwent large scale industrialization, turned into hubs of manufacturing and consumerism. Economics was fueled by supply and demand of product and the capitalist desire for wealth. During this time many new inventions came forward as many entrepreneurs driven by the alluring dream of wealth and power pushed to earn a living. Philosophers such as Thomas Malthus published new ideas about society and different ideologies revolving around the expansion of human population and consumption. However, it was during this time that environmental policy took to the back-burner. With new theories of economics and societal structures such as Capitalism, Socialism, and Utopianism taking shape, the environment as a social and economic concern lost viability and was removed from the scope of concern. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Industrial Revolution Environmental" essay for you Create order An example of economics taking precedence over the environment is the introduction of coal as a main source of power and its heavy consumption which lead to huge environmental implications but great economic gain. The issue with these new social constructions was that they were concerned primarily with the success of man economically, and less concerned with the progress of man in the long run. Many philosophers talked about making money but then depleted the resources needed to make their money. Thomas Malthus actually predicted this over expansion and consumption when he said that population would outgrow its resources as a result of the Industrial Revolution (Chang). Entrepreneurs effectively dried their wells, which inspires me to ask the following question: How did the Industrial Revolution in Britain situated men against the natural world in terms of resources and control? My assertion is that during the Industrial Revolution in Britain environmental issues appear as a result of lack of understanding that assets must be protected in order to maintain growth and wealth. Environmental issues, which emerged during the Industrial Revolution in 18th Century Britain, were the byproduct of changing attitudes of mans relationship to his environment. This attitude was sculpted by several reasons; greater resource demands for capitalist growth, cultural systematic consumption, and changes in living habits by human beings. Understanding of the development of this attitude toward the environment is important to scholars today because as it stands our environment in in peril and to have any chance of future success, the errors of the past should be understood and acknowledged. There are several views on what really caused the change in relationship between man and the environment. For example, scholars such as Murphy and Grove claim that the cause of environmental neglect was a result of colonialism and the mindset of the control of the natural world. Domination and control were the premise behind colonial expansion and with this came a desire to dominate the natural world. Both Murphy and Grove explain that colonialism created a new understanding and relationship with the environment. This relationship involved controlling it and using the resources for ones own needs. The desire for new trading commodities leads to the utilization of natural resources and the eventual decline of the environment (Murphy 8). For example, ungulate grazing in Mexico by Spanish conquistadors resulted in a huge change to the landscape and environment in central Mexico (Melville 9). Colonialism progressed as a viable economic resource for wealthier nations and was very prevalent as a cause of climate change and global warming. Demand for resources was the beginning of man against nature, but it wasnt the defining moment that set our current track. It wasnt until the Industrial Revolution that there was a solidification of the use of resources for gain. There were new resources that had never been utilized prior to the development of technology. It is true that the impacts of colonialism were great, but the ideology of colonialism did not set up human beings for future decline. It is also possible to argue that the agricultural revolution is the cause for the mindset of man against nature. As ancient peoples first began to develop agriculture they often burned and destroyed natural forests to replace them with crops and pasture land. This movement from nomadic life to sedentary life was a primary cause for overall environmental decline (Gautschi). Human progression as a result of the agricultural revolution was a major cause for the beginnings of climate change and landscape changes. Many groups that were once mobile became stagnant and thus their impact was magnified. Concentrations of waste and consumption lead to greater decline of the environment as before the stagnation of populations the land had time to naturally recover from human interaction. The change from nomadic to stagnant life may very well be the start of all humans trouble with the environment, however with the development of industrial practice and the movement of more people into city centers there was an exponential growth of impact during the Industrial Revolution and into the modern age. The development of technology and discovery of new resources ultimately lead to the proliferation of environmental degradation; to a large extent the social and environmental impacts of resource frontiers were shaped by markets, innovation, and industrialization (Murphy 10). Progress of man leads to the decline of the environment and it was during the Industrial Revolution that historians can see one of the greatest booms in technological and societal advancement. This is especially prevalent in large nations such as Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Both industrialization and colonialism shared many ideals and basic premises that were realized and put into practice on a greater scale during the Industrial Revolution. Colonialism was simply a foundation for the Industrial Revolution and imperialism was the result of it. Resource consumption during early colonialism was hardly anything compared to the destruction wrought by the industrialization of major nations such as Britain and the imperialism that followed. Also, we see many thinkers during colonialism talk about domination of the natural world while in the industrial age the focus was on mastery of this world (Pisani). The difference between mastery and domination is that mastery is a complete control while domination is an exercise of control or dominance. During colonialism the main premise was the consumption of resources from other places where the impacts were seldom seen as they were out of sight and out of mind. Britain being a major contributor to colonialism was primarily focused on the acquisition of goods such as sugar and other commodities that were produced outside of its own borders. The Industrial Revolution marked the movement of production to the home front. In Britain, there was greater resource demand as a result of invention, capitalism, profiteering and desire for economic prosperity. This is demonstrated by Kenneth Sokoloff who presents a sample of patent records in the United states in the years 1790 through 1846 as an example to study and understand the trend of inventive activity during the Industrial Revolution. It becomes apparent that patenting was pro-cyclical and grew rapidly despite the hinderance of trade following the war of 1812. There is a strong correlation between patenting, inventive activity and market growth and this is a positive relationship where one benefits the other while also being improved. Changes in cultural attitudes, prosperity of investment, new methods of information transfer, production, specialization, resource availability and inventive behavior all were involved in industrial growth, which directly impacted/influenced the relationship with man and his surrounding environment (Sokoloff). This development is important to understand in the realm of mans interaction with the environment in that as man has a desire to create, he must inevitably consume. To create something new you must first consume and destroy the old and basic resource in order to make a new product. In the case of the Industrial Revolution the old is resources and the new is a shiny and exciting commodity. In this time of new creation also came the development of consumerism. Consumerism was initially born in 18th century Britain and was later spread to the United States and other more developed nations. We see consumerism sprout up with the introduction of slavery and the racialization of Africans as commodities and the development of cash crops. Many farmers began growing and producing products such as sugar and other unnecessary items rather than what was needed. This was also the beginning of the development of a more capitalist and wealth driven society. We see the development of the market system and the transition of views on self-gain from negative to positive. The economic mindset of the market system would leave the modern world essentially an economic world and the period of 1750-1914 became an era of the capitalist entrepreneur (Chang Lec. 1). It is in this time period that the Industrial Revolution occurred situating itself as the center piece for the development of the modern age and a movement into resource consumption on a non-sustainable level. Sustainability is the concept of allowing the environment to recover and with large expansions in production and usage it was not able to. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by the disregard for sustainability in favor of economic prosperity. The focus changed from the success as a collective to the success of the individual and the desire for consumption became the focal point f or development. The natural human desire for consumption and the development of cultural systematic destruction of the environment became most prevalent during the Industrial Revolution. Jacobus A Du. Pisani gives a excellent description of the human desire to control his environment and to become successful; As the Industrial Revolution was unfolding on the world stage from the 18th century, irrevocably transforming human societies, human progress was also linked to economic growth and material advancement. Donald Worster (1993: 178, 179, 180) describes how industrialization caused ?the greatest revolution in outlook that has ever taken place by leading people to think that it is right for them to dominate the natural order and radically transform it into consumer goods, that it is necessary and acceptable to ravage the landscape in the pursuit of maximum economic production, and that only things produced by industry and placed on the market for sale have value. (Pisani). We see that during the revolution there is little value in raw materials, but that value is found rather in consumer items and purchasable items like cigars and sewing machines. This trend progressed into the modern era as little value is placed on raw materials but rather on items that require some form of production. As a society Britain and other more developed nations saw the creation of jobs not associated with production as there are none available. There is a class of workers who are not producers, but solely consumers. As workers they are used for jobs such as book keeping or banking. They make money for the sole purpose of redistribution into the economic system, even if they are under the impression that it is for their own economic prosperity. Thus, the development of an entire class of consumers dedicated to helping the market system succeed. Today this has gotten to a point of being where there are not enough jobs and yet people without jobs are still consuming goods. This trend leads to more unsustainable consumption and the environment is further damaged. As a collective, humans have stopped producing for necessity but rather for economic gain. This desire for prosperity and success clouds the ability to see the repercussions. It was Thomas Hobbes that said that mans motivation for conflict stemmed from three main sources: Competition for gain, Diffidence for safety and Glory for reputation. He describes these motivations as human nature and that man cannot be blamed for them (Chang Lec. 2). As basic needs of man are consistently fulfilled he can look for s uccess in higher tiers of need. His position in society and his wealth become a primary concern as food and shelter or always a given. As society modernized the connection between man and the environment became less mutual and more parasitic as man began to give less and take more. Man relied less on the natural world and began to urbanize, separating themselves from the environment. During the Industrial Revolution there was a major change in human living habits and a mass influx of populations into more concentrated areas and cities. We see that during the Industrial Revolution there is a mass movement toward urban centers and cities as this is where work was available. Human beings crowded into these concrete and steel jungles and this resulted in an amplification of environmental impacts. There was a rampant spread of disease, and pollution was magnified by large numbers being collected into smaller areas. In Principles of Political Economy, first published in 1848, John Stuart Mill included a short chapter on the ?stationary state, which implied a stationary condition of capital and population, but not of human improvement. He states, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that the worlds population ?will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compels them to it (Mill 1883: 452 454). Mill was essentially stating that as human beings we should strive to continue to develop and be prepared for a stagnant lifestyle long before we are forced to live in one. With the industrial age came a mass movement to city life and humans became increasingly more stagnant. Just as stagnant water breeds bacteria and disease so do stagnant humans. As more jobs were in factories people moved to where the jobs were, at no fault of their own, as they had to move with the progress of production. During the Industrial Revolution in Britain environmental issues appear as a result of lack of understanding that assets must be protected in order to maintain growth and wealth. The attitude of man shifted from collective success to that of the individual. Environmental issues, which emerged during the Industrial Revolution in 18th Century Britain, were the byproduct of changing attitudes of mans relationship to his environment. This change in attitude was developed by several factors; greater resource demands for capitalist growth, cultural systematic consumption, and changes in living habits by human beings. Understanding of the development of this attitude toward the environment is important to scholars today because as it stands our environment is in peril and to have any chance of future success, the errors of the past should be understood and acknowledged. From the Industrial Revolution starting in Britain and outward into the modern age there has been a trend of disregard for the earth in favor of economic success.